semana lixo zero – v fórum internacional varejo lixo zero (parte 3/4)

depois do painel (do post de ontem), teve um intervalo para almoço. levei minha mãe pra conhecer o kulturas, restaurante vegetariano (ovolacto) a quilo que funciona na praça de alimentação do top tower, um prédio comercial no centro de floripa. chegando lá, perguntei se tinha alguma coisa vegana entre os pratos quentes e veio a surpresa: só a polenta não era, dava pra eu escolher entre várias opções! a comidinha de lá é muito bem feita, foi um almoço delicioso <3

voltando ao fórum, as duas apresentações seguintes foram de estrangeiros, que contaram experiências relacionadas ao lixo zero em seus países:

6) steven chiv, estados unidos, san francisco department of environment

steven trabalha na secretaria municipal de meio ambiente em são francisco, na califórnia, e iniciou sua apresentação esclarecendo que lixo zero significa não à incineração e não aos aterros e sim ao “reuse, reduce, recycle, o que inclui a compostagem. um dado muito interessante apresentado por ele: os centros de triagem de materiais para reciclagem criam 7 vezes mais empregos que os aterros, ou seja, são bons tanto para o meio ambiente quanto para economia.

em 1989, foi criada na califórnia uma lei que definiu o objetivo de reduzir em 50% o volume de resíduos enviados para os aterros, aumentando a reciclagem e a compostagem. para os aterros, vai o que é considerado lixo mesmo, aquilo que não é reciclável, reutilizável nem compostável. depois de mais de uma década de esforços, o objetivo foi alcançado em 2006 e, desde então, o estado adotou a meta do lixo zero, em parceria com prefeituras, indústrias e o público.

em são francisco, a questão do lixo é um problema tratado com seriedade. no ano 2000, 900.000 toneladas de resíduos foram enviadas para o aterro local. em 2002, foi estabelecido o objetivo de se chegar ao lixo zero e não enviar nada para aterros em 2020. nada fácil, mas a cidade tem se esforçado para cumprir a meta, adotando várias medidas, que podem ser vistas aqui. em 2009, entrou em vigor uma lei (mandatory recycling and composting ordinance) segundo a qual todos os moradores e empresas da cidade devem separar adequadamente os resíduos recicláveis e compostáveis, para não enviá-los ao aterro municipal. quem não cumpre a lei pode pagar uma multa.  em 2013, foram enviadas 400.000 toneladas, uma redução de 55% em quatro anos!

lixeiras utilizadas para separação do lixo em são francisco: verde (compostáveis), azul (recicláveis) e preto (para o aterro)

lixeiras utilizadas para separação do lixo em são francisco: verde (compostáveis), azul (recicláveis) e preto (para o aterro)

outras medidas interessantes que foram adotadas em são francisco:

  • o incentivo para utilização de materiais de construção recicláveis;
  • a obrigatoriedade da utilização de sacolas de plástico compostável, papel reciclável e/ou sacolas reutilizáveis e a cobrança mínima de dez centavos por cada sacola em todos os estabelecimentos comerciais da cidade;
  • a proibição do uso de isopor como utensílios no comércio de alimentos, e a obrigatoriedade de que os utensílios descartáveis sejam compostáveis ou recicláveis;
  • a cobrança de 20 centavos por pacote de cigarros em são francisco, para cobrir custos com limpeza de bitucas nas ruas, calçadas e outros espaços públicos da cidade;
  • a obrigatoriedade de bebedouros em novas construções, para que as pessoas possam encher suas garrafas de água;
  • a proibição das secretarias municipais utilizarem recursos públicos para comprar água engarrafada.

steven terminou sua fala dizendo que o objetivo de todas essas medidas é fazer com que os novos hábitos, como a separação do lixo para reciclagem, o uso de sacolas reutilizáveis e de copos não descartáveis, por exemplo, se transformem em coisas normais para as pessoas em são francisco. no começo pode ser um susto, muita gente pode reclamar, mas quando se torna um hábito mesmo, a gente vê que é bem mais simples do que parece e é bom pra todo mundo :)

 

7) sandra nordstrom, suécia, the good tribe

sandra é antropóloga social, bastante simpática, e falou coisas bem interessantes em sua apresentação, que começou com a seguinte frase:

waste is what’s left when imagination fails“* – sandra nordstrom

*”desperdício é o que sobra quando a imaginação falha”. faz pensar, né?

ela lembrou a todos que o lixo não existe na natureza: é um conceito que foi criado pelos humanos e, portanto, pode ser eliminado. para isso, basta que a gente adote uma nova maneira de pensar. as regras da nossa sociedade também foram inventadas, assim como a economia, que todos consideramos algo natural. não é. e, então, sandra falou sobre os padrões de consumo em países como eua e suécia e como isso tem exaurido os recursos naturais do planeta, além de provocar altos níveis de poluição e mortalidade e extinção de espécies.

sandra destacou a necessidade de repensarmos o modo como vivemos e de buscarmos alcançar o lixo zero e a implantação de uma economia circular. existe muita resistência em relação a isso, mas é o que acontece com qualquer grande inovação, de acordo com ela. há uns 200 anos quem falava em voar era considerado doido e hoje o avião é algo completamente normal no nosso cotidiano.

a partir daí, sandra deu exemplos de ações que grandes empresas têm feito em relação à sustentabilidade. fico muito com o pé atrás quando vejo divulgação de notícias “verdes” de qualquer empresa de grande porte, porque em muitos casos são só maquiagens, ações que não fazem nem uma cosquinha sustentável perto dos estragos (ambientais e sociais) provocados por elas. sandra falou sobre a h&m que, junto com outras empresas, está financiando pesquisas sobre reciclagem de tecidos. muito bom, de verdade, que isso esteja acontecendo. mas a h&m… sei não. futuramente, em outro post, vou falar mais sobre a indústria da moda, principalmente a tal da “fast fashion“.

outro exemplo que a sandra deu foi sobre a patagonia, uma marca norte-americana de roupas para esportes ao ar livre, como alpinismo, esqui e surf, muito comprometida com o meio ambiente, segundo ela. no ano passado, por exemplo, a empresa acabou com seu departamento de sustentabilidade, alegando não ser mais necessário, já que todos os seus funcionários deveriam saber sobre o assunto. a patagonia usa material reciclado para produzir as roupas e pretende diminuir a produção em massa. na black friday de 2011, fez uma campanha publicitária com o slogandon’t buy this jacket” (“não compre este casaco”), informando as pessoas sobre os custos ambientais das roupas que produz, com destaque para o R2, casaco que ilustrava a peça gráfica. o texto ainda fala com clareza para que as pessoas não comprem o que elas não precisam e que pensem duas vezes antes de fazer qualquer compra. vale a pena visitar o site da patagonia pra conhecer as ações que eles fazem relacionadas ao meio ambiente. fiquei muito, muito desconfiada de tudo isso, mas dei uma pesquisada no google antes de escrever este post e, aparentemente, a empresa é séria de verdade (além de ter um departamento de marketing bastante eficiente).

"não compre este casaco" (clicando na imagem, dá pra ler melhor o texto)

“não compre este casaco” (clicando na imagem, dá pra ler melhor o texto)

sandra elogiou o angeloni, que consegue reciclar cerca de 65 toneladas de resíduos a cada mês e, assim, economiza 25% dos custos com o gerenciamento do lixo. e ainda deu o exemplo dos supermercados lixo zero, que já são 8 no mundo. eles vendem o que as pessoas querem ou precisam a granel, o que é ótimo: além de reduzir a quantidade de embalagem, ainda evita o desperdício, já que as pessoas podem comprar a quantidade exata de que necessitam.

pra finalizar, sandra falou sobre a “zero waste jam“, um programa da the good tribe, onde ela trabalha. eles perceberam que lá na suécia havia muitas árvores frutíferas nos jardins e quintais de casas e muitas frutas eram desperdiçadas, porque os moradores não se interessavam por todas. então, eles incentivam a doação dessas frutas e fazem geleias com elas. atualmente, refugiados que têm chegado à suécia têm trabalhado na produção das geleias. não me lembro (nem minha mãe) de ter ouvido a sandra falar sobre o que é feito com a renda conseguida com a venda  e não encontrei nenhuma informação sobre isso.

 

ficou grande, hein? mas é que tanto o steven quando a sandra falaram muita coisa que merecia ser contada :)

 

*amanhã, no último post sobre a semana lixo zero, vou falar das apresentações de leslie lukacs e rodrigo sabatini, além de alguns comentários sobre o evento no geral.

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